Gigabit Ethernet is a fast version of Ethernet which supports data transfer rates of 1 Gbps, a newer version can even support 10 Gbps. Gigabit Ethernet has such a high transfer rate that makes it suitable for the backbone between the different parts of a local area network (LAN).
Gigabit Ethernet can use different types of cable.
Long wavelength laser (1300 nm) optical fibres. The maximum cable length is 316 m in a half-duplex configuration and 550 m in a full-duplex configuration. The cable length can be extended to 5000 m if a very thin (10 µm) single mode fiber is used.
Short wavelength laser (850 nm) multi-mode optical fiber. The maximum cable length is 275 m on a 62.5 µm fiber cable. With a 50 µm fiber cable a length of 316 m in a half-duplex configuration or 550 m in a full-duplex configuration can be reached.
Shielded twisted pair. Maximum cable length is 25 m.
Four pairs of 100 Ohm unshielded twisted pair, category 5. The maximum cable length is 100 m.
Gigabit Ethernet is defined in IEEE 802.3z and 802.3ab (1000Base-T). The 10 Gigabit Ethernet version is defined in IEEE 802.3ae